Forty-three (43) Russian papers excluded from WHO RF-EHC Monograph
(list compiled by Marg Friesen) 

Most, if not all, of these studies are listed in PubMed—the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed 

1. Akoev, I. G., Pashovkina, M. S., Dolgacheva, L. P., Semenova, T. P., & Kalmykov, V. L. (2002). Enzymatic activity of some tissues and blood serum from animals and humans exposed to microwaves and hypothesis on the possible role of free radical processes in the nonlinear effects and modification of emotional behavior of animals. Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, 42(3), 322–330.

2. Alekseev, S. I., Ziskin, M. S., & Fesenko, E. E. (2012). [Frequency dependence of heating of human skin exposed to millimeter waves]. Biofizika, 57(1), 110–114.

3. Balan, O. V., Belov, S. V., Danileĭko, I. K., Dubovaia, T. K., Markitantova, I. V., Osiko, V. V., … Ozerniuk, N. D. (2010). [Activation of reconstructive processes in rat tissues under the action of radiofrequency current with a periodic impulse mode of modulation]. Izvestiia Akademii Nauk. Seriia Biologicheskaia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, (6), 645–652.

4. Gapeev, A. B., Romanova, N. A., & Chemeris, N. K. (2011). [Changes in the chromatin structure of lymphoid cells under the influence of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation against the background of inflammatory process]. Biofizika, 56(4), 688–695.

5. Gapeev, A. B., Shved, D. M., Mikhaĭlik, E. N., Korystov, I. N., Levitman, M. K., Shaposhnikova, V. V., … Chemeris, N. K. (2009). [Antitumor effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on a model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma]. Biofizika, 54(6), 1128–1136.

6. Gapeev, A. B., Sirota, N. P., Kudriavtsev, A. A., & Chemeris, N. K. (2010). [Responses of thymocytes and splenocytes to low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation in normal mice and in mice with systemic inflammation]. Biofizika, 55(4), 645–651.

7. Gapeyev, A. B., & Lukyanova, N. A. (2015). [Pulse-modulated Electromagnetic Radiation of Extremely High Frequencies Protects Cellular DNA against Damaging Effect of Physico-Chemical Factors in vitro]. Biofizika, 60(5), 889–897.

8. Gavrish, N. N., Ushakov, I. B., Pokhodeĭ, L. V., Rubtsova, I. B., & Pal’tsev, I. P. (2009). [Criterion for the hygienic standardization of exposure to infrequent ultra-short electromagnetic pulses]. Gigiena I Sanitariia, (1), 72–76.

9. Grigor’ev, I. (2003). [Electromagnetic fields and people’s health]. Gig.Sanit., (3), 14–16.

10. Grigor’ev, I. (2005). [The electromagnetic fields of cellular phones and the health of children and of teenagers (the situation requiring to take an urgent measure)]. Radiats.Biol.Radioecol., 45(4), 442–450.

11. Grigor’ev, I. G. (2012). [Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (comparative risk estimations)]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 52(2), 215–218.

12. Grigor’ev, I. G., & Grigor’ev, O. A. (2011). [Mobile communication and health of population: estimation of danger, social and ethical problems]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia, 51(3), 357–368.

13. Grigor’ev, I. G., Grigor’ev, O. A., Ivanov, A. A., Liaginskaia, A. M., Merkulov, A. V., Stepanov, V. S., & Shagina, N. B. (2010). [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 1. Mobile communications and changes in electromagnetic conditions for the population. Needs for additional substantiation of the existing hygienic standards]. Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, 50(1), 6–11.

14. Grigor’ev, I. G., Grigor’ev, O. A., Merkulov, A. V., Shafirkin, A. V., & Vorob’ev, A. A. (2010). [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 2. General scheme and conditions of the experiment. Development of RF exposure conditions complying with experimental tasks. Animal’s status during the long-term exposure]. Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, 50(1), 12–16.

15. Grigor’ev, I. G., Mikhaĭlov, V. F., Ivanov, A. A., Mal’tsev, V. N., Ulanova, A. M., Stavrakova, N. M., … Grigor’ev, O. A. (2010). [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 4. Manifestation of oxidative intracellular stress-reaction after long-term non-thermal EMF exposure of rats]. Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, 50(1), 22–27.

16. Grigor’ev, I. G., & Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. (2011). [Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Decision. “Electromagnetic field of mobile phones: the impact on the health of children and young people”]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 51(4), 483–487.

17. Grigor’ev, I. G., Shafirkin, A. V., & Nosocskiĭ, A. M. (2011). [New data for proving the presence of significant effects of electromagnetic exposure (to autoimmune changes in rats)]. Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, 51(6), 721–730.

18. Grigor’ev, I. G., & Sidorenko, A. V. (2010). [Non-thermal electromagnetic fields and estimation of the convulsive syndrome probable development]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 50(5), 552–559. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.proxy.bib.uottawa.ca/pubmed/21261007

19. Grigor’ev, I., Shafirkin, A. V., & Vasin, A. L. (2003). [Bioeffects of chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields of low intensity (standardization strategy)]. Radiats.Biol.Radioecol., 43(5), 501–511.

20. Grigor’ev, I., Shafirkin, A. V., & Vasin, A. L. (2005). [Biological effects of microwave radiation of low nonthermal intensity (regarding the maximal admissible values)]. Aviakosm.Ekolog.Med., 39(4), 3–18.

21. Grigorev, Y. G. (2014). [Fundamentally new electromagnetic pollution and the lack of adequate regulatory framework--on the risk assessment (analysis of modern domestic and foreign data)]. Gigiena I Sanitariia, (3), 11–16.

22. Iakimenko, I. L., Sidorik, E. P., & Tsybulin, A. S. (2011). [Metabolic changes in cells under electromagnetic radiation of mobile communication systems]. Ukrainskiĭ biokhimicheskiĭ zhurnal, 83(2), 20–28.

23. Iakushevich, L. V., Kashapova, G. R., & Zakir’ianov, F. K. (2012). [Influence of the periodic field with constant and slowly changing frequency on movement of the DNA kink]. Biofizika, 57(1), 21–26.

24. Ivanov, A. A., Grigor’ev, I. G., Mal’tsev, V. N., Ulanova, A. M., Stavrakova, N. M., Skachkova, V. G., & Grigor’ev, O. A. (2010). [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 3. The effect of the long-term non-thermal RF EMF exposure on complement-fixation antibodies against homologenous tissue]. Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, 50(1), 17–21.

25. Ivanov, D. G., & Podkovkin, V. G. (2012). [Effects of distorted geomagnetic field on the functioning of systems supporting rat’s bone matrix adaptation and metabolism in open field]. Aviakosmicheskaia I Ekologicheskaia Meditsina = Aerospace and Environmental Medicine, 46(6), 23–29.

26. Ivanova, I. V., Ivanov, V. K., & Mushenko, E. V. (2011). [Investigation of anti-inflammatory action of electromagnetic irradiation of extremely high frequencies in experiment]. Klinichna Khirurhiia / Ministerstvo Okhorony Zdorov’ia Ukraïny, Naukove Tovarystvo Khirurhiv Ukraïny, (10), 51–53.

27. Khorseva, N. I., Grigor’ev, I. G., & Gorbunova, N. V. (2011). [Psychophysiological indicators for children using mobile phones. Communication 2. Results of four-year monitoring]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 51(5), 617–623.

28. Khorseva, N. I., Grigor’ev, I. G., & Gorbunova, N. V. (2012). [Changes in the parameters of the simple auditory-motor response in children users of mobile communication: longitudinal study]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 52(3), 282–292.

29. Luk’ianova, S. N., & Alekseeva, V. A. (2011). [Changes in response of neurons in visual area of cerebral cortex of rabbits to flashes of light under the influence of low-intensity physical factors of non-ionizing nature]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 51(4), 471–475.

30. Luk’ianova, S. N., Grigor’ev, I. G., Grigor’ev, O. A., & Merkulov, A. V. (2010). [Dependence of the non-thermal radiofrequency electromagnetic field bioeffects on the typological features of electroencephalogram in humans]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 50(6), 712–722.

31. Lyaginskaja, A. M., Grigor’ev, I. G., Osipov, V. A., Grigor’ev, O. A., & Shafirkin, A. V. (2010). [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 5. Impact of the blood serum from rats exposed to low-level electromagnetic fields on pregnancy, foetus and offspring development of intact female rats]. Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, 50(1), 28–36.

32. Nikiforov, V. N., Ivanov, A. V., Ivanova, E. K., Tamarov, K. P., & Oksengendler, B. L. (2016). [On a Possible Mechanism of the Effect of Microwave Radiation on Biological Macromolecules]. Biofizika, 61(2), 255–258.

33. Pal’tsev, I. P., Pokhodzeĭ, L. V., Rubtsova, N. B., & Bogacheva, E. V. (2013). [Problems of harmonization of sanitary regulations of the electromagnetic fields of mobile radio communication equipment]. Gigiena I Sanitariia, (3), 39–42.

34. Pashovkina, M. S., & Pashovkin, T. N. (2011). [Change of cholinesterase relative activity under modulated ultra high frequency electromagnetic radiation in experiments in vitro]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 51(3), 369–373.

35. Perov, S. I., & Bogacheva, E. V. (2012). [Methods of comparative evaluation of portable communication systems: Russian and international approaches]. Meditsina Truda I Promyshlennaia Ekologiia, (3), 36–40.

36. Perov, S. I., Kudryashov, I. B., & Rubtsova, N. B. (2012). [Computational radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry in evaluation of biological effects]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 52(2), 181–186.

37. Perov, S. Y., & Bogacheva, E. V. (2015). [Theoretical and Experimental Dosimetry in Evaluation of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Field for Portable Radio Transmitters. Report 2. Homogeneous Human Head Phantom]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 55(4), 431–435.

38. Perov, S. Y., Bogachova, E. V., & Belaya, O. V. (2015). [New methodic approach to hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic energy absorption in near-field zone of irradiation source]. Meditsina Truda I Promyshlennaia Ekologiia, (7), 32–36.

39. Rubtsova, N. B., & Perov, S. I. (2012). [Methods of dosimetry in evaluation of electromagnetic fields’ biological action]. Aviakosmicheskaia I Ekologicheskaia Meditsina = Aerospace and Environmental Medicine, 46(3), 3–8.

40. Rubtsova, N. B., Perov, S. I., Bogacheva, E. V., & Kuster, N. (2013). [Development of innovative methods of electromagnetic field evaluation for portable radio-station]. Meditsina Truda I Promyshlennaia Ekologiia, (2), 9–13.

41. Shatalov, V. M. (2012). [Mechanism of the biological impact of weak electromagnetic fields and in vitro effects of degassing of blood]. Biofizika, 57(6), 1034–1040.

42. Teksheva, L. M., Barsukova, N. K., Chumicheva, O. A., & Khatit, Z. K. (2014). [Hygienic aspects of cellular communication in school age]. Gigiena I Sanitariia, (2), 60–65.

43. Zakhvataev, V. E., & Khlebopros, R. G. (2012). [The Kupershtokh-Medvedev electrostrictive instability as possible mechanism of initiation of phase transitions, domains and pores in lipid membranes and influence of microwave irradiation on cell]. Biofizika, 57(1), 75–82.

Abstracts, in English, for Russian studies excluded from WHO RF-EHC Monograph

1. Akoev, I. G., Pashovkina, M. S., Dolgacheva, L. P., Semenova, T. P., & Kalmykov, V. L. (2002). Enzymatic activity of some tissues and blood serum from animals and humans exposed to microwaves and hypothesis on the possible role of free radical processes in the nonlinear effects and modification of emotional behavior of animals. Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, 42(3), 322–330 ABSTRACT: “The dependence of activities of actomyosin ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartataminotranspherase, monoaminoxidase and that of affective rat behavior on frequency of modulation of microwaves (0.8-10 microW/cm2) was explored at short-time actions. Series of nonlinear phenomenons, inexplicable from positions of the energy approaches are revealed, The working hypothesis explaining opportunity of high performance of weak and super-weak microwaves and other revealed phenomena by resonance interaction of such electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation with paramagnetic molecules of biological tissues was proposed. This resonance interaction activate free radicals and initiate auto-supporting and auto-intensifying of chain chemical reactions. The spontaneous autocatalytic oxidation of catecholamines enlarges a common pool of free radicals, capable to participate in such enhanced generating. The protective role of monoaminoxidase is postulated. Monoaminoxidase is basically located on an outer surface of mitochondrias and it is deaminating monoamines. The deaminating prevents penetration of catecholamines inside of mitochondrias and their quinoid oxidation there with formation of free-radical semi-quinons, capable to destroy system of ATP synthesis. These inferences are obliquely confirmed by the experimentally revealed correlation between activity of monoaminoxidase and integrative activity of the rat brain.”

2. Alekseev, S. I., Ziskin, M. S., & Fesenko, E. E. (2012). [Frequency dependence of heating of human skin exposed to millimeter waves]. Biofizika, 57(1), 110–114 ABSTRACT: “In this paper we studied experimentally the frequency dependence of heating of human skin exposed to millimeter waves. Theoretical modeling of obtained data was performed using the hybrid bio-heat equation. It was found that the skin heating and SAR increased with increasing the exposure frequency. The frequency dependence of heating was entirely resulted from that of reflection from the skin. Unlike temperature, the frequency dependence of the SAR was due to the increased absorption of millimeter wave energy within the thin surface layer of the skin.”

3. Balan, O. V., Belov, S. V., Danileĭko, I. K., Dubovaia, T. K., Markitantova, I. V., Osiko, V. V., … Ozerniuk, N. D. (2010). [Activation of reconstructive processes in rat tissues under the action of radiofrequency current with a periodic impulse mode of modulation]. Izvestiia Akademii Nauk. Seriia Biologicheskaia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, (6), 645–652 ABSTRACT: “The action of a current in the radio frequency range with a periodic impulse mode of modulation on the activation of recovery processes in the skin and skeletal muscles has been studied. The action of a radio frequency current with a power of 1 W, as opposed to that of the weaker action (0.1 W) and stronger (4 W) action, leads to the activation of recovery processes in the skin and skeletal muscles. Recovery processes are manifested in the increase in proliferation and activation of angiogenesis in the skin, and also in formation of new muscle fibers. Recovery processes in muscles are accompanied by activation and migration of satellite cells of muscle tissue in the zone of action of the radio frequency current.”

4. Gapeev, A. B., Romanova, N. A., & Chemeris, N. K. (2011). [Changes in the chromatin structure of lymphoid cells under the influence of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation against the background of inflammatory process]. Biofizika, 56(4), 688–695 ABSTRACT: “Using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay), changes in chromatin structure of peripheral blood leukocytes and peritoneal neutrophils have been studied in mice exposed to low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20 min at 1 h after induction of inflammation) against the background of the systemic inflammatory process. It was revealed that the exposure of mice with the developing inflammation leads to a pronounced decrease in the level of DNA damage to peripheral blood leukocytes and peritoneal neutrophils. It is supposed that the changes in the chromatin structure of lymphoid cells have a genoprotective character in the inflammatory process and can underlie the mechanisms of realization of antiinflammatory effects of the electromagnetic radiation.”

5. Gapeev, A. B., Shved, D. M., Mikhaĭlik, E. N., Korystov, I. N., Levitman, M. K., Shaposhnikova, V. V., … Chemeris, N. K. (2009). [Antitumor effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on a model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma]. Biofizika, 54(6), 1128–1136 ABSTRACT: “The influence of different exposure regimes of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on the growth rate of solid Ehrlich carcinoma in mice has been studied. It was shown that, at an optimum repetition factor of exposure (20 min daily for five consecutive days after the tumor inoculation), there is a clearly pronounced frequency dependence of the antitumor effect. The analysis of experimental data indicates that the mechanisms of antitumor effects of the radiation may be related to the modification of the immune status of the organism. The results obtained show that extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation at a proper selection of exposure regimes can result in distinct and stable antitumor effects.”

6. Gapeev, A. B., Sirota, N. P., Kudriavtsev, A. A., & Chemeris, N. K. (2010). [Responses of thymocytes and splenocytes to low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation in normal mice and in mice with systemic inflammation]. Biofizika, 55(4), 645–651 ABSTRACT: “Changes in T cell subsets and expression of cytokine genes in thymocytes and splenocytes after exposure of BAL/c mice to low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, exposure duration 20 min) under normal conditions and in systemic inflammation were studied using flow cytometry and the methods of reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction. It was found that the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells statistically significantly increased in the thymus and considerably decreased in the spleen of exposed animals. Apparently, the exposure of animals leads to an intensification of the host defense, by activating the T-cellular immunity. As for effector functions, the increased expression of IL-1beta and IFNgamma genes in thymocytes and essentially enhanced expression of IL-1beta, IL-10, and TNFalpha genes in splenocytes were observed in mice exposed against the background of a progressive inflammatory process. The experimental data obtained specify that the directed (anti-inflammatory) response of an organism to a specific combination of effective exposure parameters of electromagnetic radiation can be realized by the activation of particular immunocompetent cells and changes in the cytokine profile.”

7. Gapeyev, A. B., & Lukyanova, N. A. (2015). [Pulse-modulated Electromagnetic Radiation of Extremely High Frequencies Protects Cellular DNA against Damaging Effect of Physico-Chemical Factors in vitro]. Biofizika, 60(5), 889–897 ABSTRACT: “Using a comet assay technique, we investigated protective effects of. extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in combination with the damaging effect of X-ray irradiation, the effect of damaging agents hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate on DNA in mouse whole blood leukocytes. It was shown that the preliminary exposure of the cells to low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20-min exposure, modulation frequencies of 1 and 16 Hz) caused protective effects decreasing the DNA damage by 20-45%. The efficacy of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation depended on the type of genotoxic agent and increased in a row methyl methanesulfonate--X-rays--hydrogen peroxide. Continuous electromagnetic radiation was ineffective. The mechanisms of protective effects may be connected with an induction of the adaptive response by nanomolar concentrations of reactive oxygen species formed by pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation.”

8. Gavrish, N. N., Ushakov, I. B., Pokhodeĭ, L. V., Rubtsova, I. B., & Pal’tsev, I. P. (2009). [Criterion for the hygienic standardization of exposure to infrequent ultra-short electromagnetic pulses]. Gigiena I Sanitariia, (1), 72–76 ABSTRACT: “The authors provide evidence for the estimated density of an inducted current as a criterion for the hygienic standardization of exposure to infrequent electromagnetic pulses of nanosecond duration, which are generated by test discharge units. The adverse effect threshold for the pulse has been determined and its maximum accessible action of the units on the staff established. Reference guidelines for electromagnetic safety of workers engaged in the pulsed fields have been developed and approved.”

9. Grigor’ev, I. (2003). [Electromagnetic fields and people’s health]. Gig.Sanit., (3), 14–16 ABSTRACT: “A lot of data has been presently accumulated on an unfavorable effect produced by electromagnetic fields (EMF) of various frequencies on human organism. However, the mechanisms of the low-intensity EMF biological actions or the possibility of development of remote consequences are not clear until now. Due to this, the WHO formulated a so-called warning concept. The prerequisites of the mentioned recommendations as well as their topicality and possible application are under discussion”

10. Grigor’ev, I. (2005). [The electromagnetic fields of cellular phones and the health of children and of teenagers (the situation requiring to take an urgent measure)]. Radiats.Biol.Radioecol., 45(4), 442–450 ABSTRACT: “The problem of the influence of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of cellular phones (CP) on the health of children and teenagers is considered in this article. The results of the researchs indicate the increased sensitivity of the children and of the teenagers to this kind of radiation. Direct indicators of electromagnetic influence can be infringement of sleep, decrease of the memory, fatigue, breach of a blood-brain barrier permeability, changes in nervous cells of a brain. As the remote consequences the development of tumors of a brain and acoustic nerve are predicted. However all these results require the realization of independent repeated researches. WHO (World Health Organization) recommends to use ‘Precautionary principle’ with the purposes of decreasing of the risk. Russian National Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection recommended to limit the use of CP by children and teenagers under 16 years old (2002, February 2004). The corresponding recommendations were included into SunPin H2.1.8/2.2.4.1190-03/(2003)”

11. Grigor’ev, I. G. (2012). [Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (comparative risk estimations)]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 52(2), 215–218 ABSTRACT: “The population has widely used mobile communication for already more than 15 years. It is important to note that the use of mobile communication has sharply changed the conditions of daily exposure of the population to EME We expose our brain daily for the first time in the entire civilization. The mobile phone is an open and uncontrollable source of electromagnetic radiation. The comparative risk estimation for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation was carried out taking into account the real conditions of influence. Comparison of risks for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation leads us to a conclusion that EMF RF exposure in conditions of wide use of mobile communication is potentially more harmful than ionizing radiation influence.”

12. Grigor’ev, I. G., & Grigor’ev, O. A. (2011). [Mobile communication and health of population: estimation of danger, social and ethical problems]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia, 51(3), 357–368 ABSTRACT: “Population lives under new electromagnetic conditions: constant round-the-clock compulsory chronic exposure of all groups of population to modulated wide spectrum of EMF RF during the work of base stations of mobile communication; daily and lifelong (from childhood) exposure of the brain to EMF RF of the mobile phone. Effects of exposure to EMF RF of low levels are presented. Results of research into chronic EMF RF exposure are absent. International recommendations and domestic guidelines do not take into account the changing conditions of EMF RF influence on the population: the brain has become a critical body, and children have been included in the risk group. Population actively continues to use mobile communication. In this situation estimation of the risks from mobile communication has become a social and ethical problem.”

13. Grigor’ev, I. G., Grigor’ev, O. A., Ivanov, A. A., Liaginskaia, A. M., Merkulov, A. V., Stepanov, V. S., & Shagina, N. B. (2010). [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 1. Mobile communications and changes in electromagnetic conditions for the population. Needs for additional substantiation of the existing hygienic standards]. Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, 50(1), 6–11 ABSTRACT: “Mobile communications provides a new source of electromagnetic exposure for almost the whole population of the Russian Federation. For the first time in the history of civilization the brain of mobile phone users was exposed to localized radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). Population exposure from the base stations is also considered to be specific. However, existing standards for limiting the exposure do not account for this special EMF source and may not ensure the absence of health effects. There was a need for reliable information that would extend databases used for development of new standards. As recommended by the World Health Organization an additional experiment was performed under the supervision of foreign experts, which showed changes in autoimmune status in rats after long-term low-level RF EMF exposure with an incident power density of 500 microW/cm2.”

14. Grigor’ev, I. G., Grigor’ev, O. A., Merkulov, A. V., Shafirkin, A. V., & Vorob’ev, A. A. (2010). [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 2. General scheme and conditions of the experiment. Development of RF exposure conditions complying with experimental tasks. Animal’s status during the long-term exposure]. Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, 50(1), 12–16 ABSTRACT: “This paper describes the conditions for handling and exposure of experimental animals (Wistar rats) and methods used in the study of immunological effects of long-term low-level (500 microW/cm2) exposure to radiofrequency (2450 MHz) electromagnetic fields, performed under auspices of the World Health Organization.”

15. Grigor’ev, I. G., Mikhaĭlov, V. F., Ivanov, A. A., Mal’tsev, V. N., Ulanova, A. M., Stavrakova, N. M., … Grigor’ev, O. A. (2010). [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 4. Manifestation of oxidative intracellular stress-reaction after long-term non-thermal EMF exposure of rats]. Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, 50(1), 22–27 ABSTRACT: “This paper presents the results of the study of the effects of long-term low-level exposure of rats to microwaves. Rats were exposed in far field to 2450 MHz continuous wave fields providing an incident power density at the cages of 500 microW/cm2 for 7 hours daily for a total of 30 days resulting in a whole-body SAR of 0.16 +/- 0.04 W/kg. Three groups (‘EMF-exposure’, ‘sham-exposure’ and cage-control) were formed, each consisting of 16 rats. Circulating antibodies (IgA, IgG and IgM) directed against 16 chemical substances were evaluated in coded serum from each group of rats by enzyme multiplied analysis (ELISA test). An increased amount of compounds resulting from interaction of amino acids with nitric oxide (NO) or its derivatives (NO2-Tyrosine, NO-Arginine, NO-Cysteine + NO-Bovine Serum Albumin, NJ-Methionine + NO-Asparagine + No-Histidine, NO-BTrypnohan + NJ-Tyrosin), fatty acids with small chains, hydroxylated fatty acids, palmitic/myristic/oleic acid, AZE (product of oxidation of fatty acids) was found in blood serum from EMF-exposed rats. As a rule, antibodies to conjugated antigens were seen for IgM, rarely seen for IgG and were completely absent for IgA. The levels of antibodies were higher on day 7 after the exposure compared to those on day 14 after the exposure.”

16. Grigor’ev, I. G., & Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. (2011). [Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Decision. “Electromagnetic field of mobile phones: the impact on the health of children and young people”]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 51(4), 483–487 ABSTRACT: “Listed in PubMed with no abstract.”

17. Grigor’ev, I. G., Shafirkin, A. V., & Nosocskiĭ, A. M. (2011). [New data for proving the presence of significant effects of electromagnetic exposure (to autoimmune changes in rats)]. Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, 51(6), 721–730 ABSTRACT: “The study using statistical analysis methods and the generalized logarithmic parameter describing the change in the condition of biological systems represents additional substantiations and proofs of the presence of the expressed amplification of the immune reaction in experimental animals after a long exposure to EMF RF non-thermal intensity with a power density of 500 microW/cm2. A substantial growth of titers of antibodies to the brain tissue on the 14th day and to a number of other antigens on the 7th and 14th days after irradiation is shown with high reliability of 99.9%. It is shown that EMF RF exposure to non-thermal intensity within 30 day causes transition of an organism to an active adaptation described by an amplified strengthening of intensity of the regulation systems of the organism.”

18. Grigor’ev, I. G., & Sidorenko, A. V. (2010). [Non-thermal electromagnetic fields and estimation of the convulsive syndrome probable development]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 50(5), 552–559 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.proxy.bib.uottawa.ca/pubmed/21261007 ABSTRACT: “There are cases of development of a convulsive syndrome at influence of electromagnetic field (EMF) in physiotherapy practice, and in conditions of a professional work. There is a point of view that EMF can render medical effect at treatment of a epilepsy syndrome. Some publications specify on develop of epilepsy convulsions in experiment at EMF of various frequencies exposure. Four conditions which can promote development of convulsions at EMF exposure are considered.”

19. Grigor’ev, I., Shafirkin, A. V., & Vasin, A. L. (2003). [Bioeffects of chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields of low intensity (standardization strategy)]. Radiats.Biol.Radioecol., 43(5), 501–511 ABSTRACT: “A retrospective analysis of the experimental researches on the effect of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health, carried out in the USSR, is presented. The results of chronic exposure of laboratory animals to EMF have been considered. Apparently, EMF in the range of 1750-2750 MHz with power density up to 100-500 W/cm2 caused in immune globullin fractions, and a development of autoimmune processes. The changes in parameters of reproductive functions and posterity, the increase in embryo mortality were found. The standartization strategy used in the USSR and currently applied in Russia has been discussed”

20. Grigor’ev, I., Shafirkin, A. V., & Vasin, A. L. (2005). [Biological effects of microwave radiation of low nonthermal intensity (regarding the maximal admissible values)]. Aviakosm.Ekolog.Med., 39(4), 3–18 ABSTRACT: “There is still much controversy in scientific approaches to setting limits of exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation in Russia, Europe and USA. The stumbling stone is recognition or denial of potential risk of biological effects from nonthermal electromagnetic radiation (to 1 mW/cm2). The authors review results of experimental investigations performed in Russia over the years since 1960s to study the direct and delayed effects of ultra-high and microwave frequencies of low non-thermal intensity EMR, and delayed negative effects in employees based on the data of several follow-up epidemiological studies. This evidence was used as a baseline for establishing the Russian limits for chronic exposure to, thresholds of harmful effects and the maximal admissible values of EMR within the above frequencies”

21. Grigorev, Y. G. (2014). [Fundamentally new electromagnetic pollution and the lack of adequate regulatory framework--on the risk assessment (analysis of modern domestic and foreign data)]. Gigiena I Sanitariia, (3), 11–16 ABSTRACT: “On the base of the study of the numerous experimental and epidemiological studies electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of mobile communications were found to adversely affect on the health of the population. Analysis of the influence of radio frequency (RF) radiation from mobile phones (MPs) on the brain of users showed that this organ body is most exposed to this radiation, especially in children. As a result of the performed research there were recorded functional changes in children--MPs users: undue fatiguability (39.7%), decreased performance in the school and at home (50.7%), weakening of the stability of voluntary attention (productivity--14.3%, accuracy 19.4%) and semantic memory (accuracy--19.4% increase in the time--30.1%). In addition, a marked change in the rate of auditory- motor response (55.5%), and disturbances of phonemic perception have been noted. The existing legal framework on the influence of EMR on human health was shown not fully to meet the hygiene requirements in connection with the absence of her normative parameters which determine the impact of complicately modulated radiation from MPs and base stations. The need for additional research on the influence of the modulated RF EMR on the human body and creation of a regulatory framework taking into account the sum of biological effects, especially on the critical organ of human--brain is substantiated by the author. When creating a regulatory framework it must be taken into account the scientific beliefs on the possible development of long-term brain pathologies under the combined effect of EMF, especially in children.”

22. Iakimenko, I. L., Sidorik, E. P., & Tsybulin, A. S. (2011). [Metabolic changes in cells under electromagnetic radiation of mobile communication systems]. Ukrainskiĭ biokhimicheskiĭ zhurnal, 83(2), 20–28 ABSTRACT: “Review is devoted to the analysis of biological effects of microwaves. The results of last years’ researches indicated the potential risks of long-term low-level microwaves exposure for human health. The analysis of metabolic changes in living cells under the exposure of microwaves from mobile communication systems indicates that this factor is stressful for cells. Among the reproducible effects of low-level microwave radiation are overexpression of heat shock proteins, an increase of reactive oxygen species level, an increase of intracellular Ca2+, damage of DNA, inhibition of DNA reparation, and induction of apoptosis. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases ERK and stress-related kinases p38MAPK are involved in metabolic changes. Analysis of current data suggests that the concept of exceptionally thermal mechanism of biological effects of microwaves is not correct. In turn, this raises the question of the need to revaluation of modern electromagnetic standards based on thermal effects of non-ionizing radiation on biological systems.”

23. Iakushevich, L. V., Kashapova, G. R., & Zakir’ianov, F. K. (2012). [Influence of the periodic field with constant and slowly changing frequency on movement of the DNA kink]. Biofizika, 57(1), 21–26 ABSTRACT: “The movement of the kink in homogeneous polynucleotide chains of DNA under the influence of three kinds of an external periodic field--with constant, growing and decreasing frequencies is investigated in the work. Dependences of speed and coordinate of the kink from time have been found with the help of McLaughlin and Scott energetic method. Phase trajectories of the kink have been constructed. It has been shown that in the case of external action with constant frequency, the kink aspires to a limiting cycle; in the case of an external field with increasing frequency it tends to a stationary state corresponding to a special point of stable focus type; in the case of an external field with decreasing frequency, the kink transfers from one stationary state (unstable focus) to another (stable focus). The obtained results show the possibility of governing the kink movement by slowly changing frequency.”

24. Ivanov, A. A., Grigor’ev, I. G., Mal’tsev, V. N., Ulanova, A. M., Stavrakova, N. M., Skachkova, V. G., & Grigor’ev, O. A. (2010). [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 3. The effect of the long-term non-thermal RF EMF exposure on complement-fixation antibodies against homologenous tissue]. Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, 50(1), 17–21 ABSTRACT: “This paper presents the results of the study of immunological effects of long-term low-level exposure of rats to microwaves. Rats were exposed in the far field to 2450 MHz continuous wave fields providing an incident power density at the cages of 500 microW/cm2 for 7 hours daily for a total of 30 days, resulting in a whole-body SAR of 0.16 +/- 0.04 W/kg. Effects of the exposure on immunological parameters in the brain and liver of rats were studied using Complement Fixation Test at low temperature (4 degrees C). Three groups (‘EMF-exposure’, ‘sham-exposure’ and cage-control) were formed, each consisting of 16 rats. On the 14th day after the 30-day exposure, titers of antibodies against brain tissue were 0.69 +/- 0.08 in the cage-control group, 0.89 +/- 0.05 in the sham-exposed group and 1.19 +/- 0.07 in the EMF-exposed group. The appearance of antibodies against liver antigens was less. The increase in titres of antibodies against brain homogenates in the sham-exposed and EMF-exposed groups could be explained by the stress-reaction of the animals and autoimmunization of organism.”

25. Ivanov, D. G., & Podkovkin, V. G. (2012). [Effects of distorted geomagnetic field on the functioning of systems supporting rat’s bone matrix adaptation and metabolism in open field]. Aviakosmicheskaia I Ekologicheskaia Meditsina = Aerospace and Environmental Medicine, 46(6), 23–29 ABSTRACT: “Physiological responses of rats to daily 30-minute exposure to distorted geomagnetic field (DGMF) over 3 and 7 days and their reaction to open field following the exposure were studied. Increases in blood 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS) were observed equally after 3- and 7-day DGMF exposure, whereas adrenal 11-OCS was found increased only on DGMF day-3; neither adrenaline in the adrenals nor glycogen in the liver were affected. On DGMF day-7, activation of bone matrix demineralization manifested itself by increased phosphorus and decreased calcium in blood, and activation of acidic phosphatase in serum. Rats reacted to open field by increases in blood and hepatic 11-OCS, reduction in adrenaline in the adrenals and glycogen in the liver, increase in serum free oxyproline and acidic phosphatase activation, and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase. Seven-day DGMF heightened or aggravated the reaction to open field.”

26. Ivanova, I. V., Ivanov, V. K., & Mushenko, E. V. (2011). [Investigation of anti-inflammatory action of electromagnetic irradiation of extremely high frequencies in experiment]. Klinichna Khirurhiia / Ministerstvo Okhorony Zdorov’ia Ukraïny, Naukove Tovarystvo Khirurhiv Ukraïny, (10), 51–53 ABSTRACT: “There were studied some mechanisms of the effect realization of the extremely high frequency electromagnet irradiation, including modification of the organism immune status as an answer on the irradiation action, manifested by mobilization of ripe CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, the interleukins (IL) concentration enhancement, including, IL-1, IL-10, as well as the levels lowering of IL-6 and C-reactive protein in the blood serum. There was established, that using a switching on the intermediate signal systems it is possible to induce the directed (antiinflammatory) answer of organism towards the effective parameters of electromagnet irradiation.”

27. Khorseva, N. I., Grigor’ev, I. G., & Gorbunova, N. V. (2011). [Psychophysiological indicators for children using mobile phones. Communication 2. Results of four-year monitoring]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 51(5), 617–623 ABSTRACT: “This study submits the results of a four-year monitoring of a complex diagnostics of the psychophysiological indicators for 196 children aged 7 to 12 years old: 147 of them are child users of mobile communication (test group) and 49 are in the control group. We have identified the following major trends of the psychophysiological indicators for child users of mobile communication: an increased number of phonemic perception disorders, abatement of efficiency, reduced indicators for the arbitrary and semantic memory, an increased fatigue. A steady decline of the parameters from high values to bottom standards has been found.”

28. Khorseva, N. I., Grigor’ev, I. G., & Gorbunova, N. V. (2012). [Changes in the parameters of the simple auditory-motor response in children users of mobile communication: longitudinal study]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 52(3), 282–292 ABSTRACT: “The study presents the findings of longitudinal observations of the changes in the parameters of simple auditory-motor response in children-users of mobile communication. The obtained results indicate the multivariability of possible effects of radiation from mobile phones on the auditory system of children.”

29. Luk’ianova, S. N., & Alekseeva, V. A. (2011). [Changes in response of neurons in visual area of cerebral cortex of rabbits to flashes of light under the influence of low-intensity physical factors of non-ionizing nature]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 51(4), 471–475 ABSTRACT: “The effect of various physical factors (SM F: 460 O; microwave EMF: 6 GHz, continuous mode, 200 microW/sm2; sound: clicks of 50 Hz, 6 db above a threshold of EEG response) on responses of neurons in visual area of cerebral cortex of rabbits to light flashes (1 Hz, 1 ms, 0.62 J) has been studied in experiments on 27 rabbits. The character of changes depended on the indicators for a background and for the response to the isolated action of light. Inhibition, rather than activation, was observed at a significantly higher initial frequency. Effect of the factors of magnetic nature was similar to the action of sound (inadequate irritant for the visual area). Inhibitory reactions were observed more frequently (significant result for the group of neurons), with their amplification at a combined action of irritants (SMF and microwave EMF; SMF and sound). The basic character of changes was limited to the drop in the pulsation frequency at the first phase of activation and to the increase in the latent periods of the first and second active phases. Other indicators for reaction to light flashes actually didn’t change.”

30. Luk’ianova, S. N., Grigor’ev, I. G., Grigor’ev, O. A., & Merkulov, A. V. (2010). [Dependence of the non-thermal radiofrequency electromagnetic field bioeffects on the typological features of electroencephalogram in humans]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 50(6), 712–722 ABSTRACT: “In researches with participation of volunteers bioeffects of short-term non-thermal radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure were studied. The basic form of brain’s reaction was the amplification of energy in a-range in electroencephalogram (EEG) spectra. Dependence of these changes, not only due to the changes of the exposure parameters, but also due to personal EEG typological features was shown. Moderate degree of the alpha frequencies domination in the background promoted development of reaction of a brain to the RF EMF exposure. To a lesser degree it was shown at hyperactivity of this range and, practically, was absent in the conditions of theta- or beta2-range domination in the EEG background with the open and closed eyes. The combination of RF EMF exposure and monotonous activity has authentically strengthened result, keeping the basic form of reaction (energy amplification in the alpha range of EEG spectrum) and dependence on EEG typological features.”

31. Lyaginskaja, A. M., Grigor’ev, I. G., Osipov, V. A., Grigor’ev, O. A., & Shafirkin, A. V. (2010). [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 5. Impact of the blood serum from rats exposed to low-level electromagnetic fields on pregnancy, foetus and offspring development of intact female rats]. Radiatsionnaia biologiia, radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia akademiia nauk, 50(1), 28–36 ABSTRACT: “This study evaluated possible adverse effects of injection of blood serum from rats exposed to microwaves at a power density of 500 microW/cm2 on pregnancy and foetal and offspring development in intact female rats. The study was performed with 59 pregnant Wistar rats. In utero mortality, embryo and foetal body weights and placenta weight were used for the evaluation of embryo and foetal development. Generally accepted integral and specific parameters were used for the evaluation of postnatal development of offspring during the first 30 days of life. It was shown that intra peritoneal injection of blood serum from IMF exposed rats (chronic 30-day RF exposure at 500 microW/cm2) to intact rats on the 10th day of pregnancy resulted in adverse effects on foetal and offspring development. Total mortality (in utero + postnatal) as well as delay in offspring development was higher in this group.”

32. Nikiforov, V. N., Ivanov, A. V., Ivanova, E. K., Tamarov, K. P., & Oksengendler, B. L. (2016). [On a Possible Mechanism of the Effect of Microwave Radiation on Biological Macromolecules]. Biofizika, 61(2), 255–258 ABSTRACT: “A model describing the process of dissociation of hydrogen bonding in water clusters when irradiated by electromagnetic field in the microwave range is suggested. The model is also applicable for the case of rupture of the covalent bond of the water molecule cluster. If the energy absorption occurs at the interface of water and polymer clusters (e.g., DNA, chitosan), degradation of the polymer chain is possible.”

33. Pal’tsev, I. P., Pokhodzeĭ, L. V., Rubtsova, N. B., & Bogacheva, E. V. (2013). [Problems of harmonization of sanitary regulations of the electromagnetic fields of mobile radio communication equipment]. Gigiena I Sanitariia, (3), 39–42 ABSTRACT: “In the article there are presented data on the probable adverse effects of electromagnetic fields generated by means of mobile cellulary radio communication equipment, a comparative analysis of hygienic rating and methods of measurement of their parameters in Russia and abroad has been performed, and the ways of harmonizing hygienic rules have been outlined, the necessity of further research to risk assessment of the use of cellular radio communication devices by population and preventive measures have been substantiated.”

34. Pashovkina, M. S., & Pashovkin, T. N. (2011). [Change of cholinesterase relative activity under modulated ultra high frequency electromagnetic radiation in experiments in vitro]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 51(3), 369–373 ABSTRACT: “Changes in the activity of enzyme cholinesterase (ChE) have been experimentally investigated under the influence of amplitude-modulated super-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (carrier frequency of 2.375 MHz; power flux density of 8 mW/cm2, 20 mW/cm2 and 50 mW/cm2; modulation frequency range 10 to 210 Hz; exposure time 5 min). The appearance of peaks of the cholinesterase increased relative activity, as well as the changes in the direction and intensity of the reaction associated with the modulation frequency and power flux are observed at equal power flux densities and exposure times.”

35. Perov, S. I., & Bogacheva, E. V. (2012). [Methods of comparative evaluation of portable communication systems: Russian and international approaches]. Meditsina Truda I Promyshlennaia Ekologiia, (3), 36–40 ABSTRACT: “The comparative analyze of specific absorption rate dosimetric evaluation and electromagnetic field levels by portable radio transmitters are shown. In paper there are divergence of Russian and international methodological approaches as hygienic assessment for hand-handle system communication.”

36. Perov, S. I., Kudryashov, I. B., & Rubtsova, N. B. (2012). [Computational radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry in evaluation of biological effects]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 52(2), 181–186 ABSTRACT: “Given growing computational resources, radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry is becoming more vital in the study of biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. The study analyzes numerical methods which are used in theoretical dosimetry to assess the exposure level and specific absorption rate distribution. The advances of theoretical dosimetry are shown. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods are analyzed in respect to electromagnetic field biological effects. The finite-difference time-domain method was implemented in detail; also evaluated were possible uncertainties of complex biological structure simulation for bioelectromagnetic investigations.”

37. Perov, S. Y., & Bogacheva, E. V. (2015). [Theoretical and Experimental Dosimetry in Evaluation of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Field for Portable Radio Transmitters. Report 2. Homogeneous Human Head Phantom]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk, 55(4), 431–435 ABSTRACT: “Results of theoretical (numerical) and experimental electromagnetic field dosimetry for homogeneous human head phantoms are considered. The simulation and measurement results are shown. This paper presents the results of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) evaluation in the ‘special anthropomorphic model’ of human head, when a source of electromagnetic radio frequency field is placed in front of the face. The minimal difference is shown between measurements and simulation results in Head Simulating Liquid, which makes it possible to conduct further brain tissue simulations. The investigations show that the type of electromagnetic field source and phantom form play an important part for SAR distribution.”

38. Perov, S. Y., Bogachova, E. V., & Belaya, O. V. (2015). [New methodic approach to hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic energy absorption in near-field zone of irradiation source]. Meditsina Truda I Promyshlennaia Ekologiia, (7), 32–36 ABSTRACT: “Nowadays, essential objective of hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic energy absorption of mobile radio-frequency devices is specification of new approach with consideration of russian and international regulation principles. This approach enables to ealuate correctly users’ actual exposure conditions and consider energy absorption by human in near-field zone of the irradiation source. The work is aimed to study applicability of hypothesis on possible relations between magnetic part of electromagnetic field and specific absorbed capacity. This hypothesis is considered a basis for designing a new methodic approach to hygienic evaluation of individual mobile communication devices in near-field zone of the source. Analysis of the data obtained demonstrates that visible difference between suggested and classic methods decreases with higher frequency. Every studied source in its near-field zone can be characterized by optimal conditions for the suggested method usage with error less than 2 dB. The study results on relations between decreasing electromagnetic energy and specific absorbed capacity value make possible further improvement of methods controlling electromagnetic field levels in assessment of personal mobile radio communication devices.”

39. Rubtsova, N. B., & Perov, S. I. (2012). [Methods of dosimetry in evaluation of electromagnetic fields’ biological action]. Aviakosmicheskaia I Ekologicheskaia Meditsina = Aerospace and Environmental Medicine, 46(3), 3–8 ABSTRACT: “Theoretical and experimental dosimetry can be used for adequate evaluation of the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. In view of the tough electromagnetic environment in aircraft, pilots’ safety is of particular topicality. The dosimetric evaluation is made from the quantitative characteristics of the EMF interaction with bio-objects depending on EM energy absorption in a unit of tissue volume or mass calculated as a specific absorbed rate (SAR) and measured in W/kg. Theoretical dosimetry employs a number of computational methods to determine EM energy, as well as the augmented method of boundary conditions, iterative augmented method of boundary conditions, moments method, generalized multipolar method, finite-element method, time domain finite-difference method, and hybrid methods combining several decision plans modeling the design philosophy of navigation, radiolocation and human systems. Because of difficulties with the experimental SAR estimate, theoretical dosimetry is regarded as the first step in analysis of the in-aircraft conditions of exposure and possible bio-effects.”

40. Rubtsova, N. B., Perov, S. I., Bogacheva, E. V., & Kuster, N. (2013). [Development of innovative methods of electromagnetic field evaluation for portable radio-station]. Meditsina Truda I Promyshlennaia Ekologiia, (2), 9–13 ABSTRACT: “The results of portable radio-station ‘Radiy-301’ electromagnetic fields (EMF) emission measurement and specific absorption rate data evaluation has shown that workers’ exposure EMF levels may elevate hygienic norms and hereupon can be health risk factor. Possible way of portable radio-station EMF dosimetry enhancement by means of domestic and international approaches harmonization is considered.”

41. Shatalov, V. M. (2012). [Mechanism of the biological impact of weak electromagnetic fields and in vitro effects of degassing of blood]. Biofizika, 57(6), 1034–1040 ABSTRACT: “The physical validity of the mechanism proposed by the author is discussed. According to the theory a prolonged exposure to weak electromagnetic fields leads to an enlargement of the micro-bubbles and degassing of bioliquid. Degassing alters the physical and chemical properties of bioliquid that affect some medical and biological indicators. The following changes in some blood parameters during degassing in vitro were analyzed: a decrease in the glucose concentration, an abnormal activation of blood clotting, an increase in the rate of blood cell aggregation, a decrease in the effectiveness of aspirin as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation and the slowing of indirect anticoagulants. All of this evidences a possible correlation between the increasing electromagnetic pollution and the risk of cardiovascular disease.”

42. Teksheva, L. M., Barsukova, N. K., Chumicheva, O. A., & Khatit, Z. K. (2014). [Hygienic aspects of cellular communication in school age]. Gigiena I Sanitariia, (2), 60–65 ABSTRACT: “In the article there are presented the materials of research on the spread and usage of mobile phones among children and adolescents of different age groups in the Russian regions, the data of the performed tests of cellular communication devices, as well as the established effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on biological objects. Risk groups of schoolchildren for adverse effect of EMR on health have been determined.”

43. Zakhvataev, V. E., & Khlebopros, R. G. (2012). [The Kupershtokh-Medvedev electrostrictive instability as possible mechanism of initiation of phase transitions, domains and pores in lipid membranes and influence of microwave irradiation on cell]. Biofizika, 57(1), 75–82 ABSTRACT: “One of the possible mechanisms of initiation of local phase transitions and formation of nonuniform structure of biological and model lipid membranes is suggested. It is based on anisotropic electrohydrodynamic instability of Kupershtokh and Medvedev in strong electric field relative to density perturbations. This mechanism may clarify initial stages of formation of membrane domains and pores, some aspects of cell signalization and influence of microwave irradiation of nonthermal intensity on living organisms.”

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